The electrical wiring scope must cover installation, testing, supply and commissioning of all accessories, wiring, switches, conduits, spur outlets, and many more. Thus, electrical wiring needs further attention, especially for building projects. Several factors are to be considered before doing the actual installation work whether for commercial, residential or industrial wiring. Electrical experts should also consider factors like wall and floor construction, installation requirements, type of ceiling, building construction, etc.
We will discuss the concept of electrical wiring for today’s blog, including different wiring systems and installation methods, and the basic wiring preparation. Everything in this blog will serve as a guide for electrical professionals in dealing with various electrical works.
The Major Importance of Appropriate Electrical Wiring
Electrical wiring that is done inappropriately is a risk and a fire hazard. It is the major responsibility of electricians to trace any electrical ambiguities. That is why, they need to have a broader electrical experience, in-depth knowledge and a license to deal with such issues. For others, wiring seems to be as simple as lights on and off. However, there is an intricate process going on deeper than the surface that only qualified electricians know. Connection circuits that are poorly designed are unsafe and can damage electronic gears and appliance motors. A poorly designed connection circuit delivers the incorrect amperage.
The process of connecting numerous accessories for the distribution of electrical energy from the meter board to home equipment is called electrical wiring. Electrical wiring installation can be done using two methods: Joint box or Tee system and Loop – in the system. Both are discussed as follows:
Below are the two common installation methods for electrical wiring.
1. Joining box or Tee System
In this installation method, connections to any appliances are prepared through joints. The joints are made from joint boxes using appropriate connectors and joints cutouts. This method of wiring doesn’t consume cable sizes. Electrical experts have to take note that this installation might be expensive in a few cases. Structure for this system will be made easier using builder trends software. It’s a trend that must be considered by electrical contractors.
2. Looping System
This wiring installation method is universally used in any electrical method. Other appliances and lamps are connected in a parallel position so that every appliance can be separately controlled. When the connection is required, the feed conductors are being lopped in by getting it directly to the terminal and then fetching it forward again to the next points.
The light and switch feeds are carried around the circuit by a series of loops. It will be carried around from one point to another until the last on the circuit is reached. The line or phase conductors are lopped either in a box or switchboard.
For a much better understanding of the concept of wiring, below are a few examples of the wiring circuits.
· Single bulb controlled only by a one-way switch
In this wiring circuit, the hot wire is typically connected to one terminal directly to the switch. The other terminal is connected directly to the positive bulb terminal.
· Two bulbs controlled by a one-way switch
Two bulbs are usually connected with supply wires in parallel. A separate one-way switch will route it. This type of wiring sample is known for its simplicity.
· Single blub controlled by two-way switches
The wiring is termed as staircase wiring wherein a light lamp will be controlled from two primary sources. This type of wiring is used for bedrooms to switch on/off from two sources.
· Go-down wiring
This type of wiring is used in long passages, tunnel-like structures and long passages. It follows a linear sequence for switching the lights from one end and to the others.
· Fluorescent lamp controlled by a one-way switch
In this circuit, the phase wire is going to be connected to one end of the switch. Yet, another end switch will be connected to the ballast (choke). One electrode of the lamp is connected to the other neutral terminal and choke.
· Socket outlet wiring
The outlet passes the current and holds a plug when the power is routed directly to the socket. The radial socket connection and a single socket connection are present.
Basic Wiring Preparation
As we are now discussing the sequence of steps for wiring and understanding the wiring system’s types, other considerations like the preparation of cables, wires, and other electrical tools are also included. Using a crew schedule software is also one of the important considerations needed to take. Furthermore, the following considerations listed below are included in the wiring preparation.
1. The specifications of the wire vary on a few factors – the insulation type, the number of conductor strands, the cross-section area, and the strands’ diameter.
2. The type of conductor to be used can either be stranded wire or solid wire conductor. Single solid wires are often utilized where rigid connections are required and these wires aren’t flexible enough. Thus, stranded conductors are mostly preferred when it comes to electrical installations.
3. Select the wires depending on the color codes that are being mentioned by several standards like black for neutral, green for earth, red for phase wires and so on. Electrical contractors have to know all wiring colors, whether in cables or wires. Important tasks like this are best monitored using a task scheduler software. This software tool guarantees an efficient way of handling and scheduling tasks.
4. Electricians have to be selective when it comes to the components they will have to use. When choosing for switches, receptacles, electrical boxes, or any other elements, make sure to base it upon rating and size. Furthermore, start wiring the components as one by following the wiring diagrams tools, and so on.
5. Numerous basic electrical tools are mandatorily required when it comes to installation works. Some of the tools used include strippers, cutters, pliers, testers, etc. Additionally, electrical contractors are also considering to use builder software for scheduling and project management purposes.
4 Basic Electrical Wiring Techniques
There are several basic wiring techniques every electrician must know about. Having in-depth knowledge and practical experience can help experts in dealing any form of electrical issue. Below are some of the most applied wiring techniques.
1. Casing and Capping Wiring
In this wiring type, the cable will run through a wood casing with parallel grooves appearing at regular intervals. The case is expected to be fixed to either walls or ceilings using screws. It will then be fully covered with a cap to protect the wires. This system is considered to be considerably expensive, yet there is a huge possibility of short circuit risks resulting in some fire hazards. Electrical contractors need to trace possible hazards earlier. The best way to handle bombarding issues is through the application of construction scheduling software.
Listed below are the materials used for casing wiring:
· PVC or VIR insulated wires
· Capping (wood or plastic made)
· Capping or casing joints
· Casing enclosure (wood or plastic made)
Advantages of this type of wiring scheme are:
· Strong and durable wiring
· Inexpensive and easy to install
· Any wiring customization can be done
· Safe from dust, rain, smoke and steam
· No risk of shock due to capping and casing
2. Cleat wiring
Here, cables that are PVC insulated are being used. The cables will be fasted directly to the walls using wood, porcelain or plastic cheats. Everything will be installed at different intervals, usually 6km. apart. This wiring is affordable but usually good enough for temporary applications. It isn’t even suitable for residential electrical wiring.
Listed below are some of the common materials used in cleat wiring:
· Weatherproof cables
· Lots of screws
· PVC or VIR insulated wires
· Plastic cleats or porcelain cleats (2-3 grooves)
This type of wiring has some advantages:
· East for detecting faults
· Easy to repair
· Addition and alteration is easy
· Easy and Cheap wiring
3. Batten Wiring
One of the most important wiring methods applied today is the batten wiring. In this wiring, insulated wires will run through the wooden battens. The battens are fixed on walls and ceilings using either screws or plugs. The cables are fitted directly onto the battens. Link clips are used as well and it will be fastened with rust-resistant nails.
Basic materials used for batten wiring are the following:
· TRS or CTS cables
· Tinned brass buckle clip (link clip)
· Brass pins
Advantages of this type of wiring scheme are listed below:
· Installations are way easier
· Appearance is much better
· Cheaper material costs
· Easy and flexible customization
· Lesser chances of leakage current
4. Conduit Wiring
PVC cables are often used in conduit wiring. If the pipes are running through the ceilings and wall surface, surface conduit wiring is the best term. On the other hand, if pipes run inside the wall surface and it will be covered with plastering, it is termed as concealed conduit wiring. Surface wiring is used mainly for industrial applications in order to interlink heavy motors. Lastly, concealed wiring is utilized for residential purposes.
· Materials used for conduit wiring:
· Metallic conduit (class A and B)
· Non-metallic conduit
· PVC or VIR insulated cables
· Rigid offset
· 2-hole strap
The main advantages of this wiring are the following:
· The safest wiring of all
· No risks of mechanical wear and tear or fire
· No risk of cable insulation damage
· Long-lasting and no risk of shock
If you are doing electrical works, it is crucial to be familiar with the concept of wiring, with more in-depth understanding, knowledge and practical experience. In that way, you can better implement any electrical works needed in the projects. Always be reminded that electrical wiring should be installed safely and correctly by electrical standards and regulations.